The intent of the USA PATRIOT Act is to

The intent of the USA Patriot Act is to identify terrorists and other persons or entities using U.S. financial institutions to further their causes and to prevent money laundering by terrorists or other criminal organizations The purpose of the USA PATRIOT Act is to deter and punish terrorist acts in the United States and around the world, to enhance law enforcement investigatory tools, and other purposes, some of which include: To strengthen U.S. measures to prevent, detect and prosecute international money laundering and financing of terrorism The Patriot Act is legislation passed in 2001 to improve the abilities of U.S. law enforcement to detect and deter terrorism. The act's official title is, Uniting and Strengthening America by.. The USA Patriot Act, according to critics, has kept the citizens to enjoying freedom of speech and expression, whether in public or on paper. This has also earned the ire of some librarians because the Act includes a provision that permits the FBI to order for the production of publications it believes can be used in the investigations

It stands for: Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools (to) Intercept (and) Obstruct Terrorism. The USA PATRIOT ACT is an act of congress signed into law on October 26, 2001 by George W. Bush. This is a little over a month after 9/11, as you can see. There were X Titles to the Act The USA PATRIOT Act (commonly known as the Patriot Act) was an Act of the United States Congress, signed into law by President George W. Bush. USA PATRIOT is a backronym for Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism List of the Pros of the Patriot Act 1. It strengthened US measures to detect, prevent, and prosecute the financing of terrorism. One of the key goals of the Patriot Act was to break down the administrative barriers that prevented different governmental organizations from talking with each other

[Solved] The intent of the USA Patriot Act is to identify

  1. The main purpose of the Patriot Act is to combat terrorism by tracing money that funds terrorist groups. What does it mean to be held under the Patriot Act? To be held under the Patriot Act is to be under surveillance, have communications be cut, and privacy non-existent
  2. The USA PATRIOT Act also allows for detention and deportation of individuals who provide lawful assistance to groups that are not designated as terrorist organizations. It then requires the immigrant to prove a negative: that he did not know, and should not have known, that his assistance would further terrorist activity
  3. The Patriot Act drove a stake through the heart of the Bill of Rights, violating at least six of the ten original amendments—the First, Fourth, Fifth, Sixth, Seventh and Eighth Amendments—and..
  4. Currently, two of the PATRIOT Act's key provisions are up for reauthorization by Congress. As the deadline draws nearer, it is important to re-engage on the importance of the PATRIOT Act and.
  5. The USA Patriot Act is a law passed shortly after September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks increasing U.S. law enforcement agencies' intelligence powers


USA PATRIOT Act, also called PATRIOT Act, in full Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001, U.S. legislation, passed by Congress in response to the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks and signed into law by Pres. George W. Bush in October 2001, that significantly expanded the search and surveillance powers of federal law-enforcement and intelligence agencies Among other things, the USA PATRIOT Act's intent was to update wiretap and surveillance laws for the Internet age, addressing real-time communications and stored communications (e-mail, voicemail), and to give law enforcement greater authority to conduct searches of property The Act mandates that all industries defined as financial institutions were to have had anti-money laundering programs in place by April 24, 2002, unless specifically exempted by the Secretary. Other Key Features of the USA PATRIOT Act In addition to the compliance program requirements set forth above, the Act also contains

of brutality quickly assembled behind its president to pass a legislation, known as the USA Patriot Act, to tackle internal and external threats to this nation on a war footing basis. The haste with which this legislation was passed made it controversial almost immediately. No doubt, the intent was vali The USA PATRIOT Act of 2001 is a 342-page, sprawling piece of legislation that contains more than 150 sections and amends more than 15 federal laws. The law's full name is the Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001, hence the acronym USA PATRIOT Act The Protecting Rights of Individuals Act (S.1552) Making Modest but Important Amendments to the PATRIOT Act The Protecting Rights of Individuals Act (PRI), which was introduced by Senators Murkowski (R-AK) and Wyden (D-OR), and is supported by organizations from across the political spectrum, puts some modest checks and balances on the most troublesome provisions of the USA PATRIOT Act The Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001 (USA PATRIOT Act), signed into law on October 26, represents the U.S. government's primary legislative response to the terrorist attacks of September 11

Patriot Act - HISTOR

  1. ent activist campaigns and organizations
  2. The Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (FinCEN) is issuing this interpretive guidance to clarify the application of the rule implementing section 314(b) (the 314(b) rule) 1 of the USA PATRIOT Act (the Act). 2 Specifically, this guidance clarifies that a financial institution participating in the section 314(b) program may share information relating to transactions that the institution suspects may involve the proceeds of one or more specified unlawful activities (SUAs.
  3. USA PATRIOT Act of 2001 - Sections 411-421 Section 411 - DEFINITIONS RELATING TO TERRORISM Senate, and the members of the relevant committees of the House of Representatives and the Senate, in writing, of the intent to designate an organization under this subsection,.
  4. The USA PATRIOT Act, H.R. 3162, was introduced into the House on October 23.It incorporated H.R. 2975 and S. 1510 and many of the provisions of H.R. 3004 (the Financial Anti-Terrorism Act). Although there were some objections and concerns raised about the legislation, a motion was made to suspend the rules, and the bill was passed. Patrick Leahy in particular commented that our ability to.
  5. This book provides a comprehensive overview of the U.S.A. Patriot Act (PA) and the issues and controversy surrounding the act in the fight against international terrorism. Abstract Few legislative acts in American history have caused polarization and controversy as did the United and Strengthening American by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism, known as.
  6. g, bipartisan margins, ar
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It stands for: Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools (to) Intercept (and) Obstruct Terrorism. The USA PATRIOT ACT is an act of congress signed into law on October 26, 2001 by George W. Bush. This is a little over a mon.. List of Disadvantages of the Patriot Act. 1. It has the potential to waste vital resources. The law allocated precious resources to tracking citizens in the US when government spending was roundly criticized, not to mention that efforts to track citizens moving overseas are also funded The USA PATRIOT Act expands government surveillance capabilities, so it is subject to a Fourth Amendment challenge as an unreasonable search, and also prohibits financing terrorism, so it is subject to a First Amendment challenge as a prohibition on free speech, freedom of religion, and freedom to associate

Homeland Security Act, Patriot Act, Freedom of Information Act, and HIM - Retired Editor's note: This update replaces the June 2004 practice brief Homeland Security Act and HIM. After the terrorist attacks in New York City, Pennsylvania, and Washington, DC, on September 11, 2001, the United States Congress enacted the Patriot Act in 2001 and the Homeland Security Act in 2002 According to the Justice Department the government is using terrorism as an excuse to pursue a broader law-enforcement agenda. A Justice Department report cites many cases that have absolutely no connection to terrorism. Patriot Act has become a way for the government to expand its authority to investigate drug traffickers, white-collar criminals, blackmailers, child pornographers 2014]!! 101! IS SECRET LAW REALLY EITHER? CONGRESSIONAL INTENT, LEGISLATIVE PROCESS, AND SECTION 215 OF THE USA PATRIOT ACT Christopher A. Donesa* After the U.S. Government disclosed the bulk collection of telephony metadata pursuant to Section 215 of the USA PATRIOT The Patriot Act struck one balance, which may or may not be the best one -- but this seems an odd point to focus on so centrally in your argument, since it's not among the Patriot Act changes.

Start studying Chapter 12 - Terrorism. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools Finally, the USA PATRIOT act is just a generic bogeyman for people who are too lazy to think about these issues. There is almost nothing in the Act that the government couldn't do before the act was passed because most of the freedoms that have been infringed were infringed in the name of the drug war (evisceration of the 4th Amendment) long before the USA PATRIOT act was enacted The Revolutionary war was fought to free America from a monarchy, the civil war was fought to free slaves and the other wars followed. Great people like Abraham Lincoln and George Washington knew that freedom isn't something you purchase once and then keep forever, they knew that it wasn't cheap, and they knew that freedom was and is worth every drop of blood that has or ever will be shed. The USA Patriot Act was not necessarily a response to the September 11, 2001 Massacre, but an anti-civil liberties agenda that has gray whiskers, which found political life in the fear and confusion that followed September 11, 2001

Specifically, the USA PATRIOT Act increases federal jurisdiction over crimes committed outside the United States (USA PATRIOT Act, Tit. VIII § 804, 2011), creates new crimes involving financial support of terrorism or terrorists abroad (USA PATRIOT Act, Tit. VIII § 805, 2011), and provides for the civil forfeiture of assets connected to terrorism (USA PATRIOT Act, Tit. VIII § 806, 2011) Many of our ideas were incorporated into the Bush-era USA Patriot Act. While not billed as emergency powers, it was clear to us that the raft of legislation that followed 9/11 was in response to. One such tool is Section 311 of the USA PATRIOT Act of 2001, which authorizes the Secretary of the Treasury (Treasury) to prohibit U.S. financial institutions from maintaining certain accounts for foreign banks if they involve foreign jurisdictions or institutions found to be of primary money laundering concern Under the Patriot Act, it is a federal crime to commit dangerous and illegal acts on U.S. soil with the intent to intimidate or coerce the government or a civilian population. It is also a federal crime to hack into government computers, give financial assistance to terrorists, and to possess substances that can be used for biological or chemical weapons for nonpeaceful purposes

Compare and contrast two of the following: USA Patriot Act, Homeland Security Act, Intelligence Reform Act, Implementing Recommendations of the 9-11 Commission Act, and the Transportation Security Act. Address areas that are complementary, contradictory, and that overlap. Pay particular attention Read mor I authored the Patriot Act, and this is an abuse of that law. I was the chairman of the House judiciary committee when the US was attacked on 11 September 2001 Components of the Patriot Act allow law enforcement to use surveillance techniques that includes computer, telephone, and other media outlets. Additionally, government agencies are able to conduct record searches, access personal records held by third parties, conduct trace searches, conduct secret searches, and intelligence gathering searches without a search warrant in some cases (ACLU, 2010) Forty-five days after 2001's 9/11 attacks, president George W. Bush signed the USA Patriot Act, but Americans only learned of the anti-terrorism law's full consequences 12 years later through Edward Snowden's surveillance revelations. The law triggered unprecedented expansion of electronic and telephone surveillance powers -- an intelligence dragnet that today is under intense dispute, as.

Wired News: The Patriot Act was drafted and passed quite hastily in response to the crisis of 9/11. Do we still need it? Viet Dinh: There is no question that the last 28 months of peace in America. Under the auspices of combating terror, the Bush administration took many steps following 9/11 that according to some have curtailed civil rights.Chief among these was the passage of the USA Patriot Act of 2001, which was signed by Bush on October 26, 2001.The original legislation contained 10 titles authorizing the government to conduct a wide range of activities aimed at preventing future. Soon after the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks, members of Congress quickly passed legislation to grant sweeping new power to both domestic law enforcement and international intelligence agencies The new law, known as the USA Patriot Act was passed within weeks of the attacks, yet received little input from experts outside law enforcement or debate from the general public What the USA Freedom Act is intended to do is. Again with the intentions. end mass domestic data collection through Section 215, as well as in the secretive National Security Letters

Perhaps, the most controversial recent act of Congress is the United and Strengthening of America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001 (1) (USA PATRIOT Act) and its impact upon the use of electronic surveillance and physical searches authorized under the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978 (FISA) (2) to combat foreign threats USA PATRIOT Act - USA PATRIOT Act - Reauthorizations: In 2005-06 the provisions scheduled to sunset were extended to February 2006 and then to March 2006 as the Senate considered a proposal to reconcile House and Senate versions of the USA PATRIOT Act Improvement and Reauthorization Act of 2005. The eventual compromise, signed into law by Bush on March 9, 2006, made 14 of the original sunset.

Sen. Lisa Murkowski (R-AK) (Murkowski Proposes Changes to USA PATRIOT Act to Protect Civil Liberties While Fighting Terrorism, Press Release from the Office of Senator Lisa Murkowski, 8/01/2003) Given the tragic events of Sept. 11th there is no question that federal law enforcement agencies needed more tools and that Congress needed to update our nation's anti-terrorism laws This is the last of a four-part series about what's really in the USA Patriot Act. (Read Part 1, Part 2, and Part 3.). Section 505, aka National Insecurity-Complex Letters. This section. President Barack Obama has signed into law the USA Freedom Act, which extends three expiring surveillance provisions of the 9/11-era USA Patriot Act. It also overhauls the most controversial. The PATRIOT Act was a series of amendments to the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA), which regulates the gathering of intelligence information. USA PATRIOT Act still raising questions Two days after Senate couldn't come to an agreement before the program lapsed, the USA Patriot Act lives once again

8 Advantages and Disadvantages of the Patriot Act

  1. The USA Freedom Act: a look at the key points of the draft bill Republican Jim Sensenbrenner prepares to publish legislation and says it's time 'to put their metadata program out of business.
  2. The Patriot Act also redefined terrorism so broadly that many non-terrorist political activities such as protest marches, demonstrations and civil disobedience are now considered potential terrorist acts, thereby rendering anyone desiring to engage in protected First Amendment expressive activities as suspects of the surveillance state
  3. 1 31 CFR § 103.110.. 2 Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism (USA PATRIOT) Act of 2001 (USA PATRIOT Act) Pub. L. No. 107-56, 115 Stat. 272 (2001).. 3 Pub. L. No. 107-56, § 314(b). Consistent with the broad intent underlying section 314(b) of the Act, the 314(b) rule defines money laundering by reference to sections.
  4. ated the checks and balances that previously gave courts the opportunity to ensure that such powers were not abused
  5. Under the USA Patriot Act, the bureau has issued more than 20,000 demands for information known as national security letters. The report concluded that the program lacks effective management.
  6. istration on September 24th, just 13 days after the attack
  7. al investigation of such activity..

On this day in 2001, President George W. Bush signed the USA PATRIOT Act, an anti-terrorism law drawn up in response to the 9/11 attacks. The act is an acronym for Uniting and Strengthening. REMARKS ON THE PATRIOT ACT OF TREASURY UNDER the President's words with action when they overwhelmingly passed, and the President signed, what is known today as the USA PATRIOT Act to share information among themselves as long as they have provided notice to the Department of the Treasury of their intent to do this and that. The USA Patriot Act (USAPA) PUBLIC LAW 107-56 (H.R. 3162) was passed by Congress on October 25, 2001 and signed into law by President George W. Bush on October 26, 2001. The popular title is acronym for the Uniting and Strengthening [of] America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act.Hurriedly passed in the wake of 9/11, the Act was intended to deter. USA PATRIOT Act. Legislation. By: 107th U.S. Congress Date: October 26, 2001 Source: USA Patriot Act About the Author: President George W. Bush signed the USA PATRIOT Act, previously passed by the first session of the 107th United States Congress, into law on October 26, 2001. INTRODUCTION. The United States Congress established the USA PATRIOT Act (Patriot Act) to improve the capabilities of. · The Patriot Act II With the exception of 11 sections, including Section 213, which authorizes sneak and peek warrants, the PATRIOT Act is set to expire on Dec. 31, 2005

USA PATRIOT Act Certification

When the Patriot Act was passed in October 2001, 16 of the more controversial measures had sunset provisions, i.e., they were automatically to expire by the end of 2005 unless renewed by. Today, the Treasury Department announced three developments in the implementation of the USA PATRIOT Act: New Industries Covered. The Department announced new regulations that will require key financial sector industries to implement programs designed to prevent the services they offer from being used to facilitate money laundering or the financing of terrorism The Obama administration wants Congress to reauthorize three controversial provisions of the 2001 USA Patriot Act scheduled to expire later this year, but said in a letter to two senators that it. USA Patriot Act Important Information About Procedures for Opening a New Account To help the government fight the funding of terrorism and money laundering activities, Federal law requires all financial institutions to obtain, verify, and record information that identifies each person who opens an account USA PATRIOT Act/Title VIII. acquired or maintained by any person with the intent and for the purpose of supporting, planning, conducting, or concealing an act of domestic or international terrorism (as defined in section 2331) against the United States,.

What is the U.S. PATRIOT Act? - Quor

U.S. Patriot Act's main objective is to deter and punish terrorist acts in the United States and around the world, to enhance law enforcement investigatory tools, and for other purposes (U.S. Patriot Act 2001), the 4t THE USA PATRIOT ACT: A POLICY OF ALIENATIONt. Kam C. Wong* And we must be mindful that as we seek to win the war that we treat Arab Americans and Muslims with the respect they deserve

Patriot Act - Wikipedi

Patriot Act Identification Requirements As of October 1, 2003, the USA Patriot Act requires to collect information from borrowers to confirm their identity. The Patriot Act requires 2 forms of identification to be collected and verified by the VA mortgage home loan originator when an applicant applies for a VA loan In a 6-to-3 decision, the high court said the law - part of the USA Patriot Act - is specific enough to provide would-be violators fair notice of when their conduct crosses the line into. Issue: Section 215 of the USA PATRIOT Act has been used to collect, in bulk, telephony metadata of U.S. persons and U.S. Citizens. Background: Section 215, also known as the Tangible Things or Business Records provision of the USA PATRIOT Act, amended Section 501 of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act and permits the collection of tangible things (including books.

11 Pros and Cons of The Patriot Act - Vittana

If the USA Freedom Act gets support, the bipartisan bill under the existing Patriot Act will be changed to ban bulk collection of metadata on phone calls. While reformers are confident that they can convince the Senate to back the legislation, the near-unanimity in the House is not reflected in the Senate, where they face opposition from Senate majority leader Mitch McConnell and Senator Rand. For example, Americans, including the Patriot Act's main sponsor Representative Jim Sensenbrenner (R-WI) and a co-sponsor of the USA Freedom Act, were shocked to learn last June that the NSA. A Historical Argument Against the Patriot Act. Greg Downing. Audience: I am targeting readers of The Nation, which is a liberal political magazine. The readers of this magazine are generally Democrats or third party members who are well informed on current issues and well educated The USA PATRIOT Act was signed into law on October 26, 2001. Taken as a whole, Section 311 of the USA PATRIOT Act provides the Secretary with a range of options that can be adapted to target specific money laundering and terrorist financing risks most effectively

read my mind: Why have a Patriot Act?

The Patriot Act Flashcards Quizle

A little over a month after the events of September 11th, 2001, an Act of Congress called the USA Patriot Act was signed into law by then President George W. Bush. Despite its controversial.. Public views of the Patriot Act, whose renewal is being debated by Congress, have changed little since the Bush administration. Currently, 42% say the Patriot Act is a necessary tool that helps the government find terrorists, while somewhat fewer (34%) say the Patriot Act goes too far and poses a threat to civil liberties The USA PATRIOT ACT [Act of 2001, Pub. L. No. 107-56, 272 Stat. 115] was introduced in the wake of the events of September 11, 2001 as a means of increasing the U.S. government's ability to intercept and obstruct terrorist communications and activities News about USA Patriot Act, including commentary and archival articles published in The New York Times

Legislative Proposals to Fix the PATRIOT Act : Civil Liberties Restoration Act, S. 2528 (Kennedy) -- amends Section 215 to ensure appropriate checks and balances; ensures access to evidence; requires accurate criminal databases; mandates data mining reports; ends secret hearings and special registration; ensures due process for detainees.. Sign-on Letter Supporting the Civil Liberties. Congress went too far in some parts of the PATRIOT Act. Urge them to support legislative efforts - in the Senate, the Murkowski bill (S.1552) and the SAFE Act (S.1709), and in the House, the SAFE Act (H.R.3352) - to reinstate an appropriate level Congress adopted the USA PATRIOT Act. Enacted with the best intentions and in response to. A bipartisan group of congressional leaders has reintroduced the USA Freedom Act. The bill is an attempt to rein in the intelligence community's Collect It All strategy, and passing USA Freedom is a first, small step in the right direction.However, it has serious faults that should be addressed

How the Anti-Terrorism Bill Allows for Detention of People

USA PATRIOT Act Reauthorization in Brief Edward C. Liu Legislative Attorney Charles Doyle Senior Specialist in American Public Law May 19, 2015 Congressional Research Service 7-5700 www.crs.gov R44042 . Government Collection of Private Information Congressional Research Servic Sec. 501. Attorney General's authority to pay rewards to combat terrorism. [(a) Payment of rewards to combat terrorism-Funds available to the Attorney General may be used for the payment of rewards pursuant to public advertisements for assistance to the Department of Justice to combat terrorism and defend the Nation against terrorist acts, in accordance with procedures and regulations.

Section 215 of the USA PATRIOT Act allows the FBI to obtain an order from the FISA Court requesting production of any tangible thing, such as business records, if the items are relevant to an ongoing authorized national security investigation, which, in the case of a United States person, cannot be based solely upon activities protected by the First Amendment to the Constitution (usa patriot act) act of 2001 VerDate 11-MAY-2000 19:15 Nov 05, 2001 Jkt 099139 PO 00056 Frm 00001 Fmt 6579 Sfmt 6579 E:\PUBLAW\PUBL056.107 APPS24 PsN: PUBL056 115 STAT. 272 PUBLIC LAW 107-56—OCT. 26, 200

Congress on Tuesday renewed controversial provisions of the USA Patriot Act, the 2001 law passed weeks after the September 11 attacks to help the government investigate and capture possible. and intentions while members of law enforcement organizations collect information to support USA Patriot Act of 2001. It also enacted the Homeland Security Act of 2002 and the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 (IRTPA) The USA PATRIOT Act held prominence in American society shortly after the September 11 terrorist attacks, and played a crucial role in enhancing the search capabilities of law enforcement Just over a month remains before Congress decides whether to reauthorize the USA Patriot Act - the controversial post-9/11 law that serves as the backbone for surveillance. Critics and supporters are lobbying Congress to either ensure their needs are met

usa patriot act President George W. Bush is joined by House and Senate representatives as he signs H.R. 3199, USA Patriot Improvement and Reauthorization Act of 2005, Thursday, March 9, 2006 in the East Room of the White House READ MORE: Goodbye Section 215: Patriot Act key surveillance provisions expire The Senate let certain parts of the USA Patriot Act lapse, failing to extend then by the June 1 deadline. Among them is the notorious Section 215, authorizing bulk collection of Americans' telephone data, which a federal court ruled illegal earlier this month

So you call yourself a Patriot? | Patriot Coalition

Mr. OBAMA: Mr. President, 4 years ago, following one of the most devastating attacks in our Nation's history, Congress passed the USA PATRIOT Act to give our Nation's law enforcement the tools. The USA Patriot Act was introduced in the House on October 23, 2001 and signed into law three days later on October 26. As the 12th anniversary of the Patriot Act's signing approaches, The Stream takes a look at the history of the law

The State of Judicial Selections: The Missouri Plan and

The USA Patriot Act passed the Senate on Oct. 24, 2001, with just one dissenting vote, and later cleared the House by a vote of 357 to 66 A. Section 326 of the USA PATRIOT Act On October 26, 2001, President Bush signed into law the USA PATRIOT Act, Pub. L. 107-56. Title III of the Act, captioned International Money Laundering Abatement and Anti-terrorist Financing Act of 2001, adds several new provisions to the Bank Secrecy Act (BSA), 3 This thesis is meant to accomplish the task of comparing and contrasting the different aspects of the Patriot Act and the Alien and Sedition Acts in the hope that, in the process, something can be learned about the future of the Patriot Act. The first chapter of the thesis consists of an analysis of the controversial sections of the Patriot Act

PPT - National Lawmaking Powers and the Regulation of U"BRAIN-DEATH" IS KIDNAPPDX RETROCorporate Frauds in the Backdrop of Sahara Case

Citi is the leading global bank. Citi strives to create the best outcomes for our clients and customers with financial solutions that are simple, creative and responsible And when the law authorizing this program—Section 215 of the USA PATRIOT Act of 2001—expires in December, Congress should not only end the authority for the program, but enact additional reforms to protect Americans' privacy rights from this type of improper surveillance THE USA PATRIOT ACT. Clapper, in which the court held the Telephone Metadata program illegal under the Congress' original intent under the §215. The Patriot Act has expired in mid-2015, and since June 2nd, 2015 has been repackaged under the USA Freedom Act That approach was enshrined in the USA FREEDOM Act of 2015, which directs that the United States Government will no longer collect telephony metadata records in bulk under Section 215 of the USA PATRIOT Act, including records of both U.S. and non-U.S. persons

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